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So far Kasım ERTURK has created 32 blog entries.



Dr. Özgür Altındağ (Dicle University)

Dr. Oktay Tatlıcıoğlu (Dicle University)

Social work is a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes social change and development, social cohesion, and the empowerment and liberation of people. Principles of social justice, human rights, collective responsibility and respect for diversities are central to social work.  Underpinned by theories of social work, social sciences, humanities and indigenous knowledge, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges and enhance wellbeing. The above definition may be amplified at national and/or regional levels.

Social Work Partnerships
Social Development
Protection and Promotion of Human Rights
Green Social Work

Cultural Diversity and Social Work
The role and effect of social work in social development and change
Social policy and social work organization
Social work in the field of family, child and women welfare
Social work in the field of elderly welfare
Social work in disasters
Local governments and social work
Social work for the disable
Community health and social work
Mental health and social work
Medical social work
The phenomenon of poverty, social assistance programs and social work
Crime and social work
Crisis management and social work
Migration and social work
Social work with vulnerable groups
Social Work Partnerships
Social Development
Protection and Promotion of Human Rights
Green Social Work
Cultural Diversity and Social Work



Film studies is an academic discipline that deals with various theoretical, historical, and critical approaches to films. It is sometimes subsumed within media studies and is often compared to television studies. Film studies is less concerned with advancing proficiency in film production than it is with exploring the narrative, artistic, cultural, economic, and political implications of the cinema. In searching for these social-ideological values, film studies takes a series of critical approaches for the analysis of production, theoretical framework, context, and creation.

The discipline of film studies includes a range of activities, such as film history, film interpretation, and film theory. For many scholars, the study of film is a valuable form of cultural history. Even the most generic films can reveal significant traits about the societies that produce and consume them. Some films go farther, expressing difficult themes through complex forms, in the manner of great works of art and literature. By situating films within an appropriate historical context, we can increase our understanding of the films and the cultures that produced them.

This process of understanding films historically often involves the process of interpretation. Many film studies place a special emphasis on developing interpretive skills. Other film studies examine questions in film theory, a mode of inquiry that seeks to understand the general traits of film. A film theorist might ask how film differs from painting, or propose a different way of understanding the experience of spectatorship. How the theorist answers those broad questions might shape the way other scholars come to understand individual works.

  • Modes of film studies
  • Close analysis of film
  • History of film/media
  • Analysis with emphasis
    • to time period
    • to regional creation
    • to genre
    • to creators
  • Methods of film production
  • Cinema Historiography
  • Cinema Criticism





Tourism – Three units of tourism science studies

Nature-based tourism unit employes scientific approaches and methods, such as geography, ecology or environmental studies, to discuss preservation and appropriate use of natural environment and regional resources.

Culture-based tourism unit employes engineering knowledges, such as city planning and architecture, to preserve historical and cultural resources, and to involve local residents to community activities to make the region more attactive to both tourists and residents.

Tourism policy and information unit employes social engineering skills, such as policy studies, psychology, and infomation science, to discuss tourism policy, to discover new tourism behavior, and to develop new information media.

  • Sustainable Tourism
  • Eco-Tourism
  • Heritage Tourism
  • Tourism and Hospitality Management
  • Hotel and Restaurant/Beverages Management
  • Health and Wellness Tourism
  • Visitor Management
  • Tourism and Immigration
  • Marketing Approaches/Strategies in Tourism and Hospitality
  • Accounting and Finance in Tourism and Hospitality Industry
  • Information Technology in Tourism and Hospitality
  • Human Resource Management in Tourism and Hospitality
  • Volunteer Tourism
  • Tourism Security and Safety
  • Innovation in Tourism
  • Tourism Development, Policy and Planning
  • Local Government Role and Tourism Development
  • Theoretical Perspectives on Tourism
  • Economic/Social/Environmental/Cultural Impacts of Tourism
  • Alternative and Special Forms of Tourism
  • Destination Marketing
  • Information Technology in Tourism
  • Tourism Research and Methodology
  • Challenges and Best Practices of Tourism
  • Negotiation in Tourism
  • Transportation and Tourism
  • The Future of Tourism
  • The Effects of Crime, Terrorism, Safety and Security
  • Managing Human Resources in Hospitality and Tourism
  • Emerging Destinations and Innovation
  • History and tourism
  • Heritage and society
  • Urban and rural development and tourism
  • Macroeconomic issues of tourism
  • Tourism management and marketing
  • History of travel and geographical exploration
  • Festivals and events in tourism industry
  • Museums and conservation
  • Sports tourism
  • Climate and tourism
  • Recreational tourism
  • Cruise industry
  • MICE industry
  • Tour operations and travel agencies




Sports science (also sports and exercise science, sports medicine or exercise physiology) is a discipline that studies how the healthy human body works during exercise, and how sport and physical activity promote health and performance from cellular to whole body perspectives. The study of sports science traditionally incorporates areas of physiology (exercise physiology), psychology (sport psychology), anatomy, biomechanics, biochemistry and biokinetics. Sports scientists and performance consultants are growing in demand and employment numbers, with the ever-increasing focus within the sporting world on achieving the best results possible. Through the study of science and sport, researchers have developed a greater understanding on how the human body reacts to exercise, training, different environments and many other stimuli.

  • Sport Management
  • Sport Education
  • Reseacrh in Sport Sciences
  • Applied anatomy and biomechanics
  • Research methods
  • Nutrition for phsyical activity
  • Introduction to the science of sport and exercise
  • The coaching process
  • Lifestyle behaviour change
  • Managing community sport
  • Life span, motor development and impairment
  • Sport, exercise and health pedagogies
  • Applying teaching and coaching
  • Abrasions, cuts, lacerations,





Sociology – studies society using various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to understand human social activity, from the micro level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and social structure.

  • Analytical sociology
  • Applied sociology
  • Architectural sociology
  • Behavioral sociology
  • Chinese sociology
  • Collective behavior
  • Comparative sociology
  • Computational sociology
  • Critical sociology
  • Cultural sociology
  • Digital sociology
  • Dramaturgical sociology
  • Economic sociology
  • Educational sociology
  • Empirical sociology
  • Environmental sociology
  • Evolutionary sociology
  • Feminist sociology
  • Figurational sociology
  • Historical sociology
  • Humanistic sociology
  • Industrial sociology
  • Internet sociology
  • Interpretive sociology
  • Jealousy sociology
  • Macrosociology
  • Marxist sociology
  • Mathematical sociology
  • Medical sociology
  • Mesosociology
  • Microsociology
  • Military sociology
  • Natural resource sociology
  • Phenomenological sociology
  • Policy sociology
  • Polish sociology
  • Political sociology
  • Psychoanalytic sociology
  • Public sociology
  • Pure sociology
  • Rural sociology
  • Social inequality
  • Social psychology (sociology)
  • Sociology of aging
  • Sociology of agriculture
  • Sociology of architecture
  • Sociology of art
  • Sociology of autism
  • Sociology of childhood
  • Sociology of conflict
  • Sociology of culture
  • Sociology of cyberspace
  • Sociology of deviance
  • Sociology of development
  • Sociology of disaster
  • Sociology of education
  • Sociology of emotions
  • Sociology of fatherhood
  • Sociology of finance
  • Sociology of food
  • Sociology of gender
  • Sociology of generations
  • Sociology of globalization
  • Sociology of government
  • Sociology of health and illness
  • Sociology of human consciousness
  • Sociology of immigration
  • Sociology of knowledge
  • Sociology of language
  • Sociology of law
  • Sociology of leisure
  • Sociology of literature
  • Sociology of markets
  • Sociology of marriage
  • Sociology of motherhood
  • Sociology of music
  • Sociology of natural resources
  • Sociology of organizations
  • Sociology of peace, war, and social conflict
  • Sociology of punishment
  • Sociology of race and ethnic relations
  • Sociology of religion
  • Sociology of risk
  • Sociology of science
  • Sociology of scientific knowledge
  • Sociology of social change
  • Sociology of social movements
  • Sociology of sociology
  • Sociology of space
  • Sociology of sport
  • Sociology of technology
  • Sociology of terrorism
  • Sociology of the body
  • Sociology of the family
  • Sociology of the history of science
  • Sociology of the Internet
  • Sociology of work
  • Sociography
  • Structural sociology
  • Theoretical sociology
  • Urban sociology
  • Visual sociology
  • Agnotology
  • Agrarian studies
  • Anthrozoology
  • Area studies
  • Behavioral economics
  • Communication studies
  • Community informatics
  • Conflict theory
  • Criminology
  • Critical management studies
  • Cultural studies
  • Demography
  • Development studies
  • Disability studies
  • Environmental studies
  • Food studies
  • Future studies
  • Gender studies
  • Geodemography
  • Global studies
  • Gerontology
  • Human ecology
  • Internet studies
  • Leisure studies
  • Political ecology
  • Organizational studies
  • Science studies
  • Science, technology and society
  • Social architecture
  • Social conflict theory
  • Social engineering
  • Social epistemology
  • Social geography
  • Social informatics
  • Social problems
  • Social philosophy
  • Social studies of finance
  • Social theory
  • Sociobiology
  • Sociocybernetics
  • Sociolinguistics
  • Sociomapping
  • Sociometry
  • Sociomusicology
  • Systems theory
  • Urban studies
  • Victimology
  • World-systems theory




Public relations practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public.

To create and sustain “shared meaning” or “common understanding” – NB this may be and usually is different from “shared beliefs” Propaganda: the general propagation of information for a specific purpose

  • Psychological warfare: Psyops
  • Public relations: techniques used to influence the publics’ perception of an organization
  • Publicity: PR techniques used to promote a specific product or brand
  • Spin (public relations)
  • Spin: both the objective of a PR campaign and the act of obtaining that objective Public relations methods and approaches
  • Airborne leaflet propaganda
  • Astroturfing and Astroturf PR: fake grassroots
  • Atrocity story
  • Bandwagon effect
  • Big lie
  • Black propaganda
  • Buzzword
  • Card stacking
  • Code word
  • Communist propaganda
  • Corporate image
  • Corporate propaganda
  • Cult of personality
  • Demonization
  • Disinformation: providing false information
  • Dog-whistle politics
  • Doublespeak
  • Enterperience: fusing entertainment and experience together
  • Euphemisms, as done deliberately to advance a cause or position (see also Political correctness)
  • Factoid
  • Fedspeak
  • Front organization
  • Glittering generality
  • Homophobic propaganda
  • Indoctrination
  • Information warfare: the practice of disseminating information in an attempt to advance your agenda relative to a competing viewpoint
  • Junk science
  • Lesser of two evils principle
  • Loaded language
  • Marketing: commercial and business techniques
  • Media bias
  • Media manipulation: the attempt to influence broadcast media decisions in an attempt to present your view to a mass audience
  • Misuse of statistics
  • News management: PR techniques concerned with the news media
  • News propaganda
  • Newspeak
  • Plain folks
  • Propaganda film
  • Public service announcement
  • Revolutionary propaganda
  • Self propaganda
  • Social marketing: techniques used in behavioral change, such as health promotion
  • Sound science
  • Rebuttal: a type of news management technique
  • Rhetoric
  • Slogan
  • Transfer (propaganda)
  • Video news release
  • Weasel Word
  • White propaganda
  • Yellow journalism
  • Agenda-setting theory
  • Framing (social sciences)
  • Propaganda model: a model developed by Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman to explain how propaganda functions in democracies



Public management is an approach to government administration and non-profit administration that resembles and/or draws on private-sector management and business techniques and approaches. These business approaches often aim to maximize efficiency and effectiveness and provide improved customer service. A contrast is drawn with the study of public administration, which emphasizes the social and cultural drivers of government that many contend (e.g. Graham T. Allison and Charles Goodsell) makes it different from the private sector.[citation needed] Studying and teaching about public management are widely practiced in developed nations.

In academia, the field of public management consists of a number of sub-fields. Scholars have proposed a number of different sets of sub-fields. One of the proposed models uses five “pillars”:

  • Organizational theory in public administration is the study of the structure of governmental entities and the many particulars inculcated in them.
  • Ethics in public administration serves as a normative approach to decision making.
  • Policy analysis serves as an empirical approach to decision making.
  • Public budgeting is the activity within a government that seeks to allocate scarce resources among unlimited demands.
  • Human resource management is an in-house structure that ensures that public service staffing is done in an unbiased, ethical and values-based manner. The basic functions of the HR system are employee benefits, employee health care, compensation, and many more (e.g., human rights, Americans with Disabilities Act). The executives managing the HR director and other key departmental personnel are also part of the public administration system.





Public finance is the study of the role of the government in the economy. It is the branch of economics which assesses the government revenue and government expenditure of the public authorities and the adjustment of one or the other to achieve desirable effects and avoid undesirable ones. Study of international relations from a theoretical perspective; it attempts to provide a conceptual framework upon which international relations can be analyzed.

The proper role of government provides a starting point for the analysis of public finance. In theory, under certain circumstances, private markets will allocate goods and services among individuals efficiently (in the sense that no waste occurs and that individual tastes are matching with the economy’s productive abilities). If private markets were able to provide efficient outcomes and if the distribution of income were socially acceptable, then there would be little or no scope for government. In many cases, however, conditions for private market efficiency are violated. For example, if many people can enjoy the same good at the same time (non-rival, non-excludable consumption), then private markets may supply too little of that good. National defense is one example of non-rival consumption, or of a public good.

“Market failure” occurs when private markets do not allocate goods or services efficiently. The existence of market failure provides an efficiency-based rationale for collective or governmental provision of goods and services. Externalities, public goods, informational advantages, strong economies of scale, and network effects can cause market failures. Public provision via a government or a voluntary association, however, is subject to other inefficiencies, termed “government failure.”

Under broad assumptions, government decisions about the efficient scope and level of activities can be efficiently separated from decisions about the design of taxation systems (Diamond-Mirlees separation). In this view, public sector programs should be designed to maximize social benefits minus costs (cost-benefit analysis), and then revenues needed to pay for those expenditures should be raised through a taxation system that creates the fewest efficiency losses caused by distortion of economic activity as possible. In practice, government budgeting or public budgeting is substantially more complicated and often results in inefficient practices.

Government can pay for spending by borrowing (for example, with government bonds), although borrowing is a method of distributing tax burdens through time rather than a replacement for taxes. A deficit is the difference between government spending and revenues. The accumulation of deficits over time is the total public debt. Deficit finance allows governments to smooth tax burdens over time, and gives governments an important fiscal policy tool. Deficits can also narrow the options of successor governments.

Public finance is closely connected to issues of income distribution and social equity. Governments can reallocate income through transfer payments or by designing tax systems that treat high-income and low-income households differently.

The public choice approach to public finance seeks to explain how self-interested voters, politicians, and bureaucrats actually operate, rather than how they should operate.




Political science – social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government, and politics.

  • Comparative politics – field and a method used in political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method.
  • Game theory – study of strategic decision making.
  • Ideology – set of ideas that constitute one’s goals, expectations, and actions.
  • Political economy – Political economy originally was the term for studying production, buying, and selling, and their relations with law, custom, and government, as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth, including through the budget process. Political economy originated in moral philosophy. It developed in the 18th century as the study of the economies of states, polities, hence political economy.
  • Political psychology, bureaucratic, administrative and judicial behaviour –
  • Psephology – branch of political science which deals with the study and scientific analysis of elections.
  • Voting systems – methods by which voters make a choice between options, often in an election or on a policy referendum.
  • Public administration – houses the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and that prepares civil servants for this work.
  • Public policy – generally the principled guide to action taken by the administrative or executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.
  • Local government studies – form of public administration which in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within the a given state.





Planning – studies the development and use of land, protection and use of the environment, public welfare, and the design of the urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.

Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and use of land, planning permission, protection and use of the environment, public welfare, and the design of the urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks. Urban planning is also referred to as urban and regional planning, regional planning, town planning, city planning, rural planning or some combination in various areas worldwide. It takes many forms and it can share perspectives and practices with urban design. Urban planning guides orderly development in urban, suburban and rural areas. Although predominantly concerned with the planning of settlements and communities, urban planning is also responsible for the planning and development of water use and resources, rural and agricultural land, parks and conserving areas of natural environmental significance. Practitioners of urban planning are concerned with research and analysis, strategic thinking, architecture, urban design, public consultation, policy recommendations, implementation and management. Urban planners work with the cognate fields of architecture, landscape architecture, civil engineering, and public administration to achieve strategic, policy and sustainability goals. Early urban planners were often members of these cognate fields. Today urban planning is a separate, independent professional discipline. The discipline is the broader category that includes different sub-fields such as land-use planning, zoning, economic development, environmental planning, and transportation planning.

Regional planning – deals with the efficient placement of land-use activities, infrastructure, and settlement growth across a larger area of land than an individual city or town.

  • Land-use planning
  • Metropolitan planning organization (MPO)
  • Principles of Intelligent Urbanism (PIU), a theory of urban planning
  • Regional Planning Councils (RPCs), a quasi-governmental body established by the state of Florida
  • Spatial planning
  • Transportation planning
  • Unified settlement planning (USP)
  • Zoning